UN Security Council approves no-fly zone over Libya

Military action against Libyan forces to start within hours

Full text of UNSC resolution 1971 authorizing no-fly zone over Libya

The U.N. Security Council voted Thursday to impose a no-fly zone over Libya and authorize "all necessary measures" to protect civilians from attacks by Muammar Gaddafi's forces, hours after the Libyan leader vowed to crush the rebellion with a final assault on the opposition capital of Benghazi.

The U.N. vote paved the way for possible international air strikes on Gaddafi's advancing military and reflected the past week's swift reversal of the situation in Libya, where once-confident rebels are now in danger of being obliterated by an overpowering pro-Gaddafi force using rockets, artillery, tanks, warplanes. That force has advanced along the Mediterranean coast aiming to recapture the rebel-held eastern half of Libya.

The resolution establishes "a ban on all flights in the airspace of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya in order to help protect civilians." It also authorizes U.N. member states to take "all necessary measures ... to protect civilians and civilian populated areas under threat of attack in the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, including Benghazi, while excluding a foreign occupation force of any form on any part of Libyan territory."

The vote was 10-0 with five countries abstaining including Russia and China, which have veto power in the council, along with India, Germany and Brazil. The United States, France and Britain pushed for speedy approval.

In Benghazi, Al-Jazeera satellite TV channel showed a large crowd watching the vote on an outdoor TV projection burst into celebration as green and red fireworks exploded in the air.

In an interview broadcast just before the Security Council voted, Gaddafi dismissed its actions. "The U.N. Security Council has no mandate. We don't acknowledge their resolutions," he told the Portuguese public Radiotelevisao Portuguesa. He pledged to respond harshly to U.N.-sponsored attacks. "If the world is crazy, we will be crazy too," he said.

U.S. officials have said the authorization for "all necessary measures" provides a legal basis for countries to carry out air strikes to protect civilians from Gaddafi's forces.

"We had said all along that Gaddafi must go," said British Foreign Secretary William Hague. "It is necessary to take these measures to avoid greater bloodshed."

In Britain, a lawmaker with knowledge of defense matters confirmed that British forces were on stand by for air strikes and could be mobilized as soon as Thursday night. The lawmaker declined to be named because the Defense Ministry has not issued official confirmation.

French Prime Minister Francois Fillon told France-2 Television that if the resolution was approved France would support military action against Gaddafi within a matter of hours.

Immediately before the vote, France's Foreign Minister Alain Juppe urged adoption of the resolution saying sanctions imposed by the Security Council on Feb. 26 aren't enough and "violence against the civilian population has been redoubled. "We cannot let these warmongers ... do this," he said. "We have very little time left. It's a matter of days. It's perhaps a matter of hours. We should not arrive too late." The resolution also calls for stronger enforcement of the arms embargo, adds names of individuals, companies and other entities to the list of those subject to travel bans and asset freezes, and requires all countries to ban Libyan flights from landing, taking off or overflying their country.

It also demands that Libya ensure the "rapid and unimpeded passage of humanitarian assistance" and asks U.N. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon to establish an eight-member panel of experts to assist the Security Council committee in monitoring sanctions.

Russia and China had expressed doubts about the United Nations and other outside powers using force against Gaddafi, a view backed by India, Brazil and Germany who also abstained.

Germany's U.N. Ambassador Peter Wittig expressed fear that using military force could lead to "the likelihood of large-scale loss of life."

Despite the lack of consensus, U.S. Ambassador Susan Rice said: "Today the Security Council has responded to the Libyan people's cry for help."

She said "Colonel Gaddafi and those who still stand by him continue to grossly and systematically abuse the most fundamental of the human rights of his people."

Gaddafi, in the Radiotelevisao Portuguesa interview, said that he rejected any U.N. threats of action.

"The U.N. Security Council has no mandate," Gaddafi said. "We don't acknowledge their resolutions."

He warned that any military action would be construed as "colonization without any justification" and would have "grave repercussions."

The Arab League has supported the call for a no-fly zone, and Gaddafi said that as a result "it's finished."

The United States joined the resolution's initial supporters — Britain, France and Lebanon — not only in pushing for a speedy vote but also in pressing for action beyond creation of a no-fly zone to protect civilians from air, land and sea attacks by Gaddafi’s fighters.

This marked a dramatic about-face by the Obama administration which for weeks hesitated about supporting a no-fly zone, fearing that the United States could get sucked into another war in a Muslim nation.

U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton told reporters in Tunisia on Thursday that a U.N. no-fly zone over Libya would require action to protect the planes and pilots, "including bombing targets like the Libyan defense systems." She said no ground intervention is being considered.

Michael Mann, a spokesman for EU foreign policy chief Catherine Ashton, called the situation "very worrying" and said the EU was looking to the U.N. Security Council before making further decisions. "We have always said all along that we are planning for all options," he said.

Russia's U.N. Ambassador Vitaly Churkin, whose government had expressed misgivings about a no-fly zone, proposed that the council vote first on a resolution calling for a cease-fire in Libya. The council refused but added a paragraph in the resolution calling for an immediate cease-fire "and a complete end to violence and all attacks against, and abuses of, civilians."

France and Britain failed to win support for a no-fly zone during a two-day meeting of Group of Eight foreign ministers in Paris on Tuesday and the G-8's final communiqué did not mention a flight ban, leaving any action to the Security Council.

Muammar Gaddafi’s government said it was declaring a unilateral ceasefire in its offensive to crush Libya’s revolt, as Western warplanes prepared to attack his forces.

“We decided on an immediate ceasefire and on an immediate stop to all military operations,” Foreign Minister Moussa Koussa told reporters in Tripoli on Friday, after the UN Security Council passed a resolution authorizing military action.

“(Libya) takes great interest in protecting civilians,” he said, adding that the country would also protect all foreigners and foreign assets in Libya.

Mr. Koussa said the cease-fire “will take the country back to safety.” But he also criticized the authorization of international military action, calling it a violation of Libya's sovereignty.

He called for dialogue with all sides. Mr. Gaddafi had vowed to show “no mercy, no pity” on Thursday, and rebels pleaded for foreign aid before time ran out. They said the city of Misrata was being pounded by government forces on Friday morning.

France, a leading advocate of military action, said it was cautious about the ceasefire announcement and that the “threat on the ground has not changed.”

“We will judge him by his actions not his words,” U.K. Prime Minister David Cameron told BBC TV.

“What is absolutely clear is the UN Security Council resolution said he must stop what he is doing, brutalizing his people. If not, all necessary measures can follow to make him stop. “That is what we agreed last night, that is what we are preparing for and we’ll judge him by what he does.”

Libya rebel sources said Muammar Gaddafi’s forces fired rockets at the western towns of Zintan and Misrata on Friday, Al Arabiya satellite TV reported.

It was unclear whether the rockets were fired after the government declared a ceasefire in its offensive to crush the Libyan revolt.

Western officials said military action could include France, Britain, the United States and one or more Arab countries. “Britain will deploy Tornadoes and Typhoons as well as air-to-air refueling and surveillance aircraft,” Prime Minister David Cameron told parliament. “Preparations to deploy these aircraft have already started and in the coming hours they will move to airbases from where they can start to take the necessary action.”

Gulf state Qatar said it would take part but it was unclear whether that meant military help, while Denmark said it planned to contribute warplanes. France is to host international talks on Saturday to discuss the action.

People in Misrata said the rebel-held western city was under heavy bombardment by Mr. Gaddafi’s forces on Friday.

“They are bombing everything, houses, mosques and even ambulances,” Gemal, a rebel spokesman, told Reuters by phone from the last big rebel stronghold in the west.

Another rebel named Saadoun said: “We believe they want to enter the city at any cost before the international community starts implementing the U.N. resolution. “We call on the international community to do something before it’s too late. They must act now.”

A fighter named Mohammed said tanks were advancing on the city centre. “All the people of Misrata are desperately trying to defend the city,” he said.

Four people had been killed and 70 wounded, Al Arabiya television said. A government spokesman said the military operation should be completed on Friday.

The reports could not be independently confirmed. Authorities were preventing Tripoli-based foreign journalists from reporting freely.

Time was also running short for Benghazi, the eastern city that has been at the heart of Libya’s month-old revolt.

But Mr. Gaddafi’s troops did not fulfill his threat to overrun the rebel base overnight after their rapid counter-offensive brought them to within 100 km (60 miles) of the eastern city.

“We will come. House by house, room by room,” Mr. Gaddafi said in a radio address to Benghazi late on Thursday.

In the days before the UN resolution Mr. Gaddafi also threatened to respond harshly to UN-sponsored action, and turn into “hell” the lives of anyone who attacks Libya.

“If the world is crazy, we will be crazy, too,” said Mr. Gaddafi. In the past the unpredictable leader has refused to heed the countless calls for him to step aside after 42 years in control of his country. And he has pledged to fight to the death.

Mr. Gaddafi’s son Saif al-Islam said Libya was “not afraid” of the UN resolution, Al Arabiya said.

He said the army would surround but not enter Benghazi and “anti-terror” forces would be sent in to disarm rebel forces, Al Jazeera quoted ABC news as saying.

Al Jazeera television showed thousands of people listening to Mr. Gaddafi’s speech in a central Benghazi square, then erupting in celebration after the UN vote, waving anti-Gaddafi tricolors and chanting defiance of the man who has ruled for four decades.

Fireworks burst over the city and gunfire rang out.

Some had fled to the Egyptian border on Thursday but said the U.N. move had given them new hope. “It’s a great development. We are so thankful,” said Rajab Mohammed al-Agouri, with five children. “But we are waiting for it to be implemented. We are tired of talk.”

The UN Security Council, meeting in emergency session, passed a resolution endorsing a no-fly zone. It also authorized “all necessary measures” – code for military attack – to protect civilians from Mr. Gaddafi’s forces.

Libya’s military airfields are mostly strung along the Mediterranean coast, as are its population centers. Mr. Gaddafi’s ground troops are advancing from the west along the main coast road towards Benghazi in the east.

While other countries or NATO may play roles in military action, U.S. officials expect the United States with its extensive air and sea forces to do the heavy lifting in a campaign likely to include air strikes on tanks and artillery.

The six CF-18 fighter jets Canada is sending to help enforce the new United Nations no-fly zone over Libya could leave as early as Friday to join an assembling international force, and will be based out of Southern Europe, possibly Italy. Ottawa will also send between 120 and 200 military personnel to support the planes.

As of Friday morning, the U.S. had yet to announce what its role would be. It was unclear if Britain and France would lead the way militarily.

Mr. Gaddafi on Thursday warned Benghazi that only those who laid down their arms before his advancing troops would be spared the vengeance awaiting “rats and dogs.”

“It’s over. The issue has been decided,” Mr. Gaddafi said. “We are coming tonight ... We will find you in your closets. We will have no mercy and no pity.”

Residents said the Libyan air force unleashed three air raids on the city of 670,000 on Thursday and there was fierce fighting along the Mediterranean coastal highway.

Ten of the Council’s 15 member states voted in favor of the resolution, while Russia, China and Germany were among the five that abstained. The resolution was co-sponsored by France, Britain, Lebanon and the United States.

Apart from military action, it expands sanctions against Mr. Gaddafi and associates. Among firms whose assets it orders frozen are the Libyan National Oil Corp and the central bank. European air traffic control organization Eurocontrol said Malta had told it that Tripoli air traffic control was not accepting aircraft into Libyan airspace “until further notice.”

Rebel National Council head Mustafa Abdel Jalil told Al Jazeera television air strikes, beyond the no-fly zone, were essential to stop Mr. Gaddafi. “We stand on firm ground. We will not be intimidated by these lies and claims... We will not settle for anything but liberation from this regime.”

Some in the Arab world sense a Mr. Gaddafi victory could turn the tide in the region against pro-democracy movements that have unseated autocrats in Tunisia and Egypt and inspired mass protests in Bahrain, Yemen and elsewhere.

Mr. Gaddafi’s Defense Ministry warned of swift retaliation, even beyond Libyan frontiers, against hostile action.

“Any foreign military act against Libya will expose all air and maritime traffic in the Mediterranean Sea to danger and civilian and military (facilities) will become targets of Libya’s counter-attack,” the ministry said in a statement.

Foreign military action could include no-fly and no-drive zones, a maritime exclusion zone, jamming army communications and intelligence help. Air strikes would almost certainly be launched to knock out Libyan radar and air defenses.

“Mission creep” worries some. Western powers, chastened by protracted wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, would be wary of getting drawn into any ground action in Libya.

Germany said it saw “considerable dangers and risks.” NATO member Turkey also said it opposed the operation.

Arab League chief Amr Moussa said the UN resolution was aimed at protecting civilians and not did not authorize invasion, and said he did not want any side “to go too far.”

Mr. Gaddafi would be guilty of war crimes if he carries out a threat to attack civilians in Benghazi, the International Criminal Court’s prosecutor Luis Moreno-Ocampo said.

In a related development, The New York Times says four of its journalists who were reported missing while covering the Libya conflict have been found. The Times reported on its website that the four were captured by forces loyal to Mr. Gaddafi and will be released Friday.

The Times say his son, Seif Gaddafi, gave the information to Christiane Amanpour in an ABC News interview.

The following is the full final text of United Nations Security Council Resolution (UNSCR) 1971 which was adopted by the United Nations Security Council on Thursday evening. It authorizes a no-fly zone on Libya and "all necessary measures" to protect its citizens. UNSCR was backed by 10 countries, enough to pass it, while 5 other countries - including Russia, China and Germany - chose to abstain. None of the UN Security Council members voted against the Resolution.

The Security Council, Recalling its resolution 1970 (2011) of 26 February 2011, Deploring the failure of the Libyan authorities to comply with resolution 1970 (2011), Expressing grave concern at the deteriorating situation, the escalation of violence, and the heavy civilian casualties, Reiterating the responsibility of the Libyan authorities to protect the Libyan population and reaffirming that parties to armed conflicts bear the primary responsibility to take all feasible steps to ensure the protection of civilians, Condemning the gross and systematic violation of human rights, including arbitrary detentions, enforced disappearances, torture and summary executions, Further condemning acts of violence and intimidation committed by the Libyan authorities against journalists, media professionals and associated personnel and urging these authorities to comply with their obligations under international humanitarian law as outlined in resolution 1738 (2006), Considering that the widespread and systematic attacks currently taking place in the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya against the civilian population may amount to crimes against humanity, Recalling paragraph 26 of resolution 1970 (2011) in which the Council expressed its readiness to consider taking additional appropriate measures, as necessary, to facilitate and support the return of humanitarian agencies and make available humanitarian and related assistance in the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Expressing its determination to ensure the protection of civilians and civilian populated areas and the rapid and unimpeded passage of humanitarian assistance and the safety of humanitarian personnel, Recalling the condemnation by the League of Arab States, the African Union, and the Secretary General of the Organization of the Islamic Conference of the serious violations of human rights and international humanitarian law that have been and are being committed in the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Taking note of the final communiqué of the Organization of the Islamic Conference of 8 March 2011, and the communiqué of the Peace and Security Council of the African Union of 10 March 2011 which established an ad hoc High Level Committee on Libya, Taking note also of the decision of the Council of the League of Arab States of 12 March 2011 to call for the imposition of a no-fly zone on Libyan military aviation, and to establish safe areas in places exposed to shelling as a precautionary measure that allows the protection of the Libyan people and foreign nationals residing in the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Taking note further of the Secretary-General’s call on 16 March 2011 for an immediate cease-fire, Recalling its decision to refer the situation in the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya since 15 February 2011 to the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court, and stressing that those responsible for or complicit in attacks targeting the civilian population, including aerial and naval attacks, must be held to account, Reiterating its concern at the plight of refugees and foreign workers forced to flee the violence in the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, welcoming the response of neighboring States, in particular Tunisia and Egypt, to address the needs of those refugees and foreign workers, and calling on the international community to support those efforts, Deploring the continuing use of mercenaries by the Libyan authorities, Considering that the establishment of a ban on all flights in the airspace of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya constitutes an important element for the protection of civilians as well as the safety of the delivery of humanitarian assistance and a decisive step for the cessation of hostilities in Libya, Expressing concern also for the safety of foreign nationals and their rights in the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Welcoming the appointment by the Secretary General of his Special Envoy to Libya, Mr Abdel-Elah Mohamed Al-Khatib and supporting his efforts to find a sustainable and peaceful solution to the crisis in the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Reaffirming its strong commitment to the sovereignty, independence, territorial integrity and national unity of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Determining that the situation in the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya continues to constitute a threat to international peace and security, Acting under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations, Demands the immediate establishment of a cease-fire and a complete end to violence and all attacks against, and abuses of, civilians; Stresses the need to intensify efforts to find a solution to the crisis which responds to the legitimate demands of the Libyan people and notes the decisions of the Secretary-General to send his Special Envoy to Libya and of the Peace and Security Council of the African Union to send its ad hoc High Level Committee to Libya with the aim of facilitating dialogue to lead to the political reforms necessary to find a peaceful and sustainable solution; Demands that the Libyan authorities comply with their obligations under international law, including international humanitarian law, human rights and refugee law and take all measures to protect civilians and meet their basic needs, and to ensure the rapid and unimpeded passage of humanitarian assistance; Protection of civilians Authorizes Member States that have notified the Secretary-General, acting nationally or through regional organizations or arrangements, and acting in cooperation with the Secretary-General, to take all necessary measures, notwithstanding paragraph 9 of resolution 1970 (2011), to protect civilians and civilian populated areas under threat of attack in the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, including Benghazi, while excluding a foreign occupation force of any form on any part of Libyan territory, and requests the Member States concerned to inform the Secretary-General immediately of the measures they take pursuant to the authorization conferred by this paragraph which shall be immediately reported to the Security Council; Recognizes the important role of the League of Arab States in matters relating to the maintenance of international peace and security in the region, and bearing in mind Chapter VIII of the Charter of the United Nations, requests the Member States of the League of Arab States to cooperate with other Member States in the implementation of paragraph 4; No Fly Zone Decides to establish a ban on all flights in the airspace of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya in order to help protect civilians; Decides further that the ban imposed by paragraph 6 shall not apply to flights whose sole purpose is humanitarian, such as delivering or facilitating the delivery of assistance, including medical supplies, food, humanitarian workers and related assistance, or evacuating foreign nationals from the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, nor shall it apply to flights authorized by paragraphs 4 or 8, nor other flights which are deemed necessary by States acting under the authorization conferred in paragraph 8 to be for the benefit of the Libyan people, and that these flights shall be coordinated with any mechanism established under paragraph 8; Authorizes Member States that have notified the Secretary-General and the Secretary-General of the League of Arab States, acting nationally or through regional organizations or arrangements, to take all necessary measures to enforce compliance with the ban on flights imposed by paragraph 6 above, as necessary, and requests the States concerned in cooperation with the League of Arab States to coordinate closely with the Secretary General on the measures they are taking to implement this ban, including by establishing an appropriate mechanism for implementing the provisions of paragraphs 6 and 7 above, Calls upon all Member States, acting nationally or through regional organizations or arrangements, to provide assistance, including any necessary over-flight approvals, for the purposes of implementing paragraphs 4, 6, 7 and 8 above; Requests the Member States concerned to coordinate closely with each other and the Secretary-General on the measures they are taking to implement paragraphs 4, 6, 7 and 8 above, including practical measures for the monitoring and approval of authorized humanitarian or evacuation flights; Decides that the Member States concerned shall inform the Secretary-General and the Secretary-General of the League of Arab States immediately of measures taken in exercise of the authority conferred by paragraph 8 above, including to supply a concept of operations; Requests the Secretary-General to inform the Council immediately of any actions taken by the Member States concerned in exercise of the authority conferred by paragraph 8 above and to report to the Council within 7 days and every month thereafter on the implementation of this resolution, including information on any violations of the flight ban imposed by paragraph 6 above; Enforcement of the arms embargo Decides that paragraph 11 of resolution 1970 (2011) shall be replaced by the following paragraph : "Calls upon all Member States, in particular States of the region, acting nationally or through regional organizations or arrangements, in order to ensure strict implementation of the arms embargo established by paragraphs 9 and 10 of resolution 1970 (2011), to inspect in their territory, including seaports and airports, and on the high seas, vessels and aircraft bound to or from the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, if the State concerned has information that provides reasonable grounds to believe that the cargo contains items the supply, sale, transfer or export of which is prohibited by paragraphs 9 or 10 of resolution 1970 (2011) as modified by this resolution, including the provision of armed mercenary personnel, calls upon all flag States of such vessels and aircraft to cooperate with such inspections and authorizes Member States to use all measures commensurate to the specific circumstances to carry out such inspections"; Requests Member States which are taking action under paragraph 13 above on the high seas to coordinate closely with each other and the Secretary-General and further requests the States concerned to inform the Secretary-General and the Committee established pursuant to paragraph 24 of resolution 1970 (2011) ("the Committee") immediately of measures taken in the exercise of the authority conferred by paragraph 13 above; Requires any Member State whether acting nationally or through regional organizations or arrangements, when it undertakes an inspection pursuant to paragraph 13 above, to submit promptly an initial written report to the Committee containing, in particular, explanation of the grounds for the inspection, the results of such inspection, and whether or not cooperation was provided, and, if prohibited items for transfer are found, further requires such Member States to submit to the Committee, at a later stage, a subsequent written report containing relevant details on the inspection, seizure, and disposal, and relevant details of the transfer, including a description of the items, their origin and intended destination, if this information is not in the initial report; Deplores the continuing flows of mercenaries into the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya and calls upon all Member States to comply strictly with their obligations under paragraph 9 of resolution 1970 (2011) to prevent the provision of armed mercenary personnel to the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya; Ban on flights Decides that all States shall deny permission to any aircraft registered in the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya or owned or operated by Libyan nationals or companies to take off from, land in or overfly their territory unless the particular flight has been approved in advance by the Committee, or in the case of an emergency landing; Decides that all States shall deny permission to any aircraft to take off from, land in or overfly their territory, if they have information that provides reasonable grounds to believe that the aircraft contains items the supply, sale, transfer, or export of which is prohibited by paragraphs 9 and 10 of resolution 1970 (2011) as modified by this resolution, including the provision of armed mercenary personnel, except in the case of an emergency landing; Asset freeze Decides that the asset freeze imposed by paragraph 17, 19, 20 and 21 of resolution 1970 (2011) shall apply to all funds, other financial assets and economic resources which are on their territories, which are owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by the Libyan authorities, as designated by the Committee, or by individuals or entities acting on their behalf or at their direction, or by entities owned or controlled by them, as designated by the Committee, and decides further that all States shall ensure that any funds, financial assets or economic resources are prevented from being made available by their nationals or by any individuals or entities within their territories, to or for the benefit of the Libyan authorities, as designated by the Committee, or individuals or entities acting on their behalf or at their direction, or entities owned or controlled by them, as designated by the Committee, and directs the Committee to designate such Libyan authorities, individuals or entities within 30 days of the date of the adoption of this resolution and as appropriate thereafter; Affirms its determination to ensure that assets frozen pursuant to paragraph 17 of resolution 1970 (2011) shall, at a later stage, as soon as possible be made available to and for the benefit of the people of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya; Decides that all States shall require their nationals, persons subject to their jurisdiction and firms incorporated in their territory or subject to their jurisdiction to exercise vigilance when doing business with entities incorporated in the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya or subject to its jurisdiction, and any individuals or entities acting on their behalf or at their direction, and entities owned or controlled by them, if the States have information that provides reasonable grounds to believe that such business could contribute to violence and use of force against civilians; Designations Decides that the individuals listed in Annex I shall be subject to the travel restrictions imposed in paragraphs 15 and 16 of resolution 1970 (2011), and decides further that the individuals and entities listed in Annex II shall be subject to the asset freeze imposed in paragraphs 17, 19, 20 and 21 of resolution 1970 (2011); Decides that the measures specified in paragraphs 15, 16, 17, 19, 20 and 21 of resolution 1970 (2011) shall apply also to individuals and entities determined by the Council or the Committee to have violated the provisions of resolution 1970 (2011), particularly paragraphs 9 and 10 thereof, or to have assisted others in doing so; Panel of Experts Requests the Secretary-General to create for an initial period of one year, in consultation with the Committee, a group of up to eight experts ("Panel of Experts"), under the direction of the Committee to carry out the following tasks: (a) Assist the Committee in carrying out its mandate as specified in paragraph 24 of resolution 1970 (2011) and this resolution; (b) Gather, examine and analyze information from States, relevant United Nations bodies, regional organizations and other interested parties regarding the implementation of the measures decided in resolution 1970 (2011) and this resolution, in particular incidents of non-compliance; (c) Make recommendations on actions the Council, or the Committee or State, may consider to improve implementation of the relevant measures; (d) Provide to the Council an interim report on its work no later than 90 days after the Panel’s appointment, and a final report to the Council no later than 30 days prior to the termination of its mandate with its findings and recommendations; Urges all States, relevant United Nations bodies and other interested parties, to cooperate fully with the Committee and the Panel of Experts, in particular by supplying any information at their disposal on the implementation of the measures decided in resolution 1970 (2011) and this resolution, in particular incidents of non-compliance; Decides that the mandate of the Committee as set out in paragraph 24 of resolution 1970 (2011) shall also apply to the measures decided in this resolution; Decides that all States, including the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, shall take the necessary measures to ensure that no claim shall lie at the instance of the Libyan authorities, or of any person or body in the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, or of any person claiming through or for the benefit of any such person or body, in connection with any contract or other transaction where its performance was affected by reason of the measures taken by the Security Council in resolution 1970 (2011), this resolution and related resolutions; Reaffirms its intention to keep the actions of the Libyan authorities under continuous review and underlines its readiness to review at any time the measures imposed by this resolution and resolution 1970 (2011), including by strengthening, suspending or lifting those measures, as appropriate, based on compliance by the Libyan authorities with this resolution and resolution 1970 (2011). Decides to remain actively seized of the matter. Libya: UNSCR proposed designations Annex I: Travel Ban 1. QUREN SALIH QUREN AL QADHAFI / Libyan Ambassador to Chad. Has left Chad for Sabha. Involved directly in recruiting and coordinating mercenaries for the regime. 2. Colonel AMID HUSAIN AL KUNI / Governor of Ghat (South Libya). Directly involved in recruiting mercenaries. Annex II: Asset Freeze 1. Dorda, Abu Zayd Umar / Position: Director, External Security Organization 2. Jabir, Major General Abu Bakr Yunis / Position: Defense Minister 3. Matuq, Matuq Mohammed / Position: Secretary for Utilities 4. Qadhafi, Mohammed Muammar / Son of Muammar Qadhafi. Closeness of association with regime 5. Qadhafi, Saadi / Commander Special Forces. Son of Muammar Qadhafi. Closeness of association with regime. Command of military units involved in repression of demonstrations 6. Qadhafi, Saif al-Arab / Son of Muammar Qadhafi. Closeness of association with regime 7. Al-Senussi, Colonel Abdullah Entities 1. Central Bank of Libya / Under control of Muammar Qadhafi and his family, and potential source of funding for his regime. 2. Libyan Investment Authority / Under control of Muammar Qadhafi and his family, and potential source of funding for his regime. 3. Libyan Foreign Bank / Under control of Muammar Qadhafi and his family and a potential source of funding for his regime. 4. Libyan Africa Investment Portfolio / Under control of Muammar Qadhafi and his family, and potential source of funding for his regime. 5. Libyan National Oil Corporation / Under control of Muammar Gaddafi and his family, and potential source of funding for his regime.